On a regular basis people sent me photos, to share their enthusiasm for vintage airliners or to illustrate a question. These photos have been lingering in a scrapbook or a discarded box somewhere and/or probably wouldn't find their way to Online-use or publication. |
To prevent them from getting lost, with permission of the sender, I would like to share them on this page.
Photos already online (personal websites, airliners.net, jetphotos.net, etc) are not meant to be included here.
Phil Gies sent me this photo in Aug.2007, showing the beautiful Kenora Seaplane Base in Ontario (Canada).
In the front sits C-FTBX, a Beech D18S (also named the 'Twin Beech') with c/n A-479.
It was registered to Kenora Air Service on 24Feb06 and Phil took a fine day to shoot this photo.
In Oct.2007 I went to Kenora myself, a report can be found on Canada07-Kenora.
| In August 2007 I was given the opportunity to save someone's efforts from obscurity...:
"My name is Rick Barter and I am based at the Avra Valley Airport, now called Marana Regional.
I have seen so many web sites regarding these Connies but no one ever bothers to mention ol' Rick Barter who so lovingly applied the fabric to those big beautiful rudders at Skywords Aviation LLC....
We always get left in the shadows with no mention ever given!
I restored an aircraft that is on display in the Smithsonian Air and Space museum and with many articles written about it and again we are always left in the shadows with no mention."
Skywords Aviation LLC
11700 W Avra Valley Rd 69
Marana, AZ 85653
I found out a bit of history of Rick Barter, working with Sean Keating to get a Percival Pembroke back in the air...
Engine run up at Puyallup,WA.
Sean wrote: "we nearly got it to fly, just ran out of time and money… which are the two ingredients that make all old propliners fly .."
I found the history on http://belmilac.wetpaint.com/page/Percival+P.66+Pembroke+C.51?t=anon
for Pembroke RM-2, c/n P66-0017, Line-nr: K66B-4002
|George Chomokovski sent me these photos in August 2007.
C-GCDX was photographed by George at its homebase Selkirk,Manitoba on 18Aug07.
It has c/n (msn) 314 and was registered, since 04Jul96, to Enterlake Air Services
Passengers are seen boarding into DHC-2 Beaver C-GPHI (c/n 838). |
C-GPHI was registered to Enterlake Air Services Ltd of Selkirk,Man. on 24Apr02.
This aircraft has been modified to what is called a modified "long-nose-Beaver". More can be read on Neil Aird's excellent website: DHC-2.com
|John Olafson sent me these photos and comments of an everlasting DHC2 Beaver in August 2007.|
|Here is Beaver C-FBVR c/n 1548 photographed at Vernon on 09Aug07. This stunning Turbo Beaver was converted to turbine by Viking Air of Victoria recently and is owned by a numbered company in Alberta.
This DHC-2 Beaver was formerly registered as C-FPSM (c/n 1548, see above, I photographed FPSM at Campbell River in 200,3 when it was still a piston engined Beaver.
I think it received the "Eager Beaver" paint scheme earlier on when it was in New Zealand as ZK-CGX.
The staff at Viking do an incredible job with rebuilds of Beavers. Just perfection in every way.
| "Several days after photographing C-FBVR at Vernon I received the news that it had landed at Penticton, BC airport with the wheels up. After talking to the chaps at Sealand Industries here in Vernon, they figured the damage to the Wipline Amphib floats would be minimum and that the Beaver would no doubt fly out of there very shortly."
See also DHC-2.com for history and more photos.
C-7A Caribou RP-C2702 was used by Jan's Helicopter Service, flying tuna fish in the Philippines. Does it still?
For more photos of propliners in the Philippines & elsewhere, please visit Ron Mak's webpage on this website.
This is Fairchild C-119G Flying Boxcar, of former aerial fire fighting company Hawkins & Powers Aviation Inc.
In 2018 an initiative got under way to move N5216R to Alaska; ownership seems to be tangled in some foggy paper trail involving the government and the local county.
George Chomokovski sent me these photos in August 2007. A second look made me realize these were more interesting than I initially thought...
An interesting peek, I would say, into the storage yard of the Western Canada Aviation Museum (www.wcam.mb.ca), which one can visit in Winnipeg but has this facility in St.Andrews (about 15 miles north of Winnipeg on highway 9).
This Lockheed Lodestar is easy enough to indentify by information from Joe Baugher's website: Lockheed C-60A-1-LO Lodestar, serial batch 42-55845/55859, directly ordered by USAAF.
C/n 55848 to NR66 July 1945, later N66E. Converted to Learstar II in 1956; by 1963 it was registered N815AC, in Feb69 became N8157C. To CF-OZO 25Feb70, to N9987F in Dec76, to C-FOZO of Terra Surveys Ltd in May 1982.
It was badly damaged at Nanisivik on 12Aug84, when the undercarriage collapsed.
Can someone help me in identifying the other 2 airframes in the photo on the left??
Brian Maddison replied to this request:
"The two airframes in the WCAM storage yard are a Bolingbroke IV and an Anson V.
Both are listed on various sites as belonging to the museum, but there are no identities given.
The Anson looks interesting as it appears to have a civil paint scheme, but it could be RAF Transport Command...
Compare it to this Austin Airways Anson on Airliners.net"
John Olafson came to the same conclusion, he added:
"Both types were used extensively with the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) during WWII. Many of them flew all over the Canadian prairie provinces then.
It looks to me like the Anson had seen some civilian use, as it is not the typical yellow used by the BCATP. It is probably one of the later all metal versions too."
Purely from a photographer's point of view I was about to dismiss with this photo, until I found that the airframe in the back, C-FLOL, is a Saunders ST-27 !
The Saunders ST-27 regional airliner was build in the 1970s by the Canadian Saunders Aircraft Company in Gimli, Manitoba, Designed as a conversion of the earlier de Havilland Heron, the ST-27 was the most radical DH Heron conversion program, featuring two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 turboprops and a stretched fuselage. Despite its promise as a regional airliner, the project collapsed when Manitoba government funding was withdrawn. More on Wikipedia.
I hope the museum is able to renovate this rare survivor, if only because it is a 'local product'!
Through the fence I can barely make out the tailnumber: CF-FCD.
During Sep.2007 I visited the museum in Winnipeg myself, see HERE... Unfortunately I could not find the time to detour along this storage yard (the museum has exhibits stored in various places).
Nigel Aylmer sent me these photos in August 2007:
"Called in at the Atlanta Technical College, on 06Aug07. Not exactly in the best part of town, but it was a success.
The Beech TC-45J, N3484 c/n 4292, was present in the usual silver, with no marks at all.
Guess this is fairly 'off airport'; you can Google Earth the College.
The info on the airframe is taken from USA Military out of Service, 2003.
It is not ideally parked for a photos, but the best I could do under the circumstances."
Photos © Nigel Aylmer.
|Bob Parmerter provided a more detailed history (writer of the book on the Beech 18):
"C/n 4292, SNB-2 39208 USN accepted on 15Jan43. Delivered to Chief AOTC NAS Lake City, FL 23Jan43. To CQTU Glenview 1944. Reconditioned in Mar45 Corpus Christi. OTU VFN-1 1945-46.
Radar School St Simon, GA 1946. NATTC Memphis 1947.
Overhauled at Corpus Christi Apr48. Remanufactured to SNB-5 (new c/n N-637) and delivered on 09Mar51. Redesignated TC-45J on 18Sep62, then UC-45J on 14Oct64.
Into storage at MASDC. Struck off 30Apr68, as UC-45J.
Registered N3484 to Atlanta Area Technical School, Atlanta, GA (sources: USRR Suppl Sep74 & CAR Jul75, Aug76 not listed Dec76).
Seen at Atlanta Tech in May97 and 06Aug07.
It seems to have been redesignated as UC-45J while in the USN, but was civil registered as TC-45J??"
Dave Dula sent me images in April 2008, proving this is SNB-2 39208; click HERE...
It seems this Beech was offered for free (!) after it was sold thru 'Govdeals', then offered on Barnstormers.com for parts... See my item on Photos by Friends & Guests (48).
Mark Ohman wrote me in August 2007:
"I found a picture on your site of the Vickers Viscount CF-THG c/n 224, as it was being transported by barge from Vancouver to Victoria. I happened to be visiting my parents on Vancouver Island when the aircraft arrived at the British Columbia Aviation Museum (www.bcam.net), and I took great interest because my father was a captain on the Air Canada Viscounts in the 1960's (along with all of his pilot friends at the time)."
"I was visiting Victoria this week and went to see the Viscount again. It is currently being restored to its original TCA livery by several of the retired pilots (all family friends).
I was fortunate to be able to walk around, inside, and on top of that beautiful plane with my father and the other Viscount pilots as they were working on it."
"The photographs date from 03Aug07, with the restoration just beginning. Here is some information on the pictures- Picture top: shows the masking for the old Trans-Canada Airlines markings. They will be removing all of the white and red, stripping the plane down to bare aluminum in the coming months, to match the original paint scheme. The cockpit is currently gutted as they have removed most of the panelling for restoration. The pilot in charge tells me that they hope to have restorations complete by summer of 2008."
In Dec.2008 Sean Keating sent me a link: "update for your website… the Viscount has now repainted..
First flight 19Mar57 - delivered to TCA 28Mar57 as CF-THG. TCA became Air Canada on 01Jun64. CF-THG was stored on 16Feb64 (ttl 35.405 hrs, 37.561 cycles).
Sold to United AIrcraft Services Ltd on 27Apr74. Sold to Beaver Enterprises 10Jun75. Sold to Harrison Airways 21Jan77. Sold to the Pacific Vocational Institute on 10Jun80, withdrawn from use and used as a ground trainer at Vancouver, B.C.
Transferred to the British Colombia Institute of Technology in Oct83.
Late 1995 moved outside the hangar. In June 2003 noted discarded on south side of Vancouver IAP.
Moved May 2005 by barge to the BC Aviation Museum at Pat Bay, Vancouver Island.
"The Vickers Viscount" (- by Rayner G C Kittle; Air-Britain Historians Ltd, 2008)
| "PBY5, it finally has arrived...", that is how I initially received these photos, without much proper identification, relayed 'via-via' on the Web.
But fortunately Glenn Johnston reported back, he took these photos and he wrote: "...they cover the arrival of the hull of what I understand is a PBY-6A to Classic Flyers NZ.Com at Tauranga Airport, New Zealand on 01Aug07.
The hull was brought from Ardmore airport in Auckland, where it had been stripped to provide parts for the Catalina group's PBV-1A ZK-PBY which itself makes flying visits to Tauranga from time to time.
It is intended that the hull be restored as a static exhibit with appropriate interior equipment and exterior colour scheme and our volunteers have already made a start on this.
My particular responsibility as a volunteer at Classic Flyers is to produce data for its museum display. We are currently researching the aircraft's history for this purpose."
| An excellent update appeared in the David Legg's Catalina World News (June 200 Edition) of the Catalina Society:
Recently identified as the one-time US Navy PBY-5A BuAer48334, more recently N74821 and N9535C, the hull of this Catalina had moved around the world from Long Beach and Hemet in California to Ephrata in Washington before going to Auckland.
The Catalina Group passed the hulk on to Classic Flyers at Tauranga in August 2007, after stripping it of useful spares for ZK-PBY.
At Tauranga, volunteers set to with initial focus on rebuilding the bow section which had been removed some years before in the USA. Progress was rapid and by the end of Winter 2009 the entire hull had been tidied up and painted as a San Diego-based US Navy Catalina with the hull code ‘204’.
The project group had previously decided that no attempt would be made to obtain wings and a tail section to replace the missing originals. Instead, the intention is that the hull will in due course become a ‘walk in’ exhibit once the interior has received further attention.
On 07Mar09 the hull was lifted and positioned on a raised stand inside the museum hangar at Tauranga.
Will it ever get this nice??? :
Glenn wrote: "I enjoy the periodic visits of ZK-PBY to Tauranga. This photo shows this aircraft at Classic Flyers last year [02Sept06]."
Details at www.catalina.org.nz/ZKPBY.htm
Stewart Lanham wrote me in Aug.2008:
"I am sending 3 photos of the interior of PP-VBF, c/n 10156, taken at Rio de Janeiro [Galeao] taken 12Nov01.
I don't have a digital photo of the aircraft to send..."
For the purpose of the exterior shot I have added a 1997 photo by Daniel R.Carneiro (used with permission); click on the photo for a link to Airliners.net.
Daniel has a very nice selection (both vintage-, as well as modern aeroplanes) on Planepictures.net
"The photo of the aircraft you used from Airliners.net shows the aircraft at an earlier location a short distance away. This location is next to the second security gate to the hangars; the land which the DC-3 occupied is now within the fenced area of the adjacent GE engine overhaul facility.
By the time I first saw this aircraft in 2001 it had been moved to outside the Ruben Berta Fundacion canteen and building, adjacent to the first security gate, making it more accessible."
| James Rachetto shot a series of photos of this beautifully restored Ford Tri-motor, on display in the Evergreen museum at McMinnville,OR.
Aad van der Voet, of OldWings.nl, provided the history for this Ford 5-AT-B Tri-Motor (c/n 5-AT-8,) the "smooth skin Ford"...:
First flight 01-Dec-1928, delivered to Transcontinental Air Transport Jan-1929 as NC9645, named City of Wichita.
Transferred to TWA (which was still called Transcontinental and Western Air then) in Apr-1931.
To Mr. G. Ruckstell, trading as Grand Canyon Airlines, in Jul-1935. To Grand Canyon - Boulder Dam Tours in Feb-1937.
To TACA Honduras Dec-1937, registration unknown.
It also spent a period with an unknown operator in Nicaragua, as AN-AAS, as of 1942.
To Ricardo Izurieta (Campeche, Mexico) Jun-1946 as XA-FUB.
Sold to Arturo d'Argence (Campeche, Mexico) Aug-1950, reregd to XA-NET.
During major overhaul and repairs at Mexico City in 1951 the Ford's regular corrugated skin was removed and replaced with normal flat sheet metal. Since then it was nicknamed "Smooth Skin Ford".
Sold to Augusto d'Argence (Campeche, Mexico) Jul-1953. Accident Jan-1954, then stored in damaged condition.
Acquired by Eugene O. Frank (Caldwell, ID) in Nov-1955 and regd as N58996. Not operated, stored in poor condition at Caldwell, ID.
Sold to collector William F. Harrah from Reno, NV (of Harrah's Hotel and Casinos) in Jul-1964. He restored it to flying condition (at great expense), and reregistered it to N9645. It was flown a few times in the Reno area, but was then placed on static display as part of his famous automobile collection in Reno. Named "City of Reno".
Harrah died in 1978 and part of his collection (a large part still exists as a display collection in Reno), including the Tri-Motor, was auctioned off in Jun-1986. The Ford was sold to Gary Norton, trading as Norton Aero Ltd. (Athol, ID).
Finally, in Feb-1990, it was acquired by Evergreen, but it remained in storage at McMinnville, OR until about 1996, when restoration to flying condition was started. It is/was occasionally flown to airshows, but can normally be found on display in the Evergreen Aviation Museum as NC9645, painted with Evergreen International titles and named "City of McMinnville".
[Aad's main source: The Ford Tri-Motor 1926-1992, by William T.Larkins]
A little update on the BAHF efforts & progress to bring back to the skies this beautiful classic propliner: the Boeing C-97 Stratocruiser. 55 of these Boeing aircraft from the 1940's & 50's became known as the 377 Stratocruiser. The rest went into military service with the USAF & ANG units to serve as cargo lifters & airtankers.
Out of a production run of 888, only 2 survive in the world today which could be made airworthy.
The BAHF owns and operates C-97 52-2718 (N117GA c/n 16749), one of the two, and is destined to become a "Flying Museum" of Cold War history, when the project is complete.
Photos © by Kevin Kearney, Vice-President, Berlin Airlift Historical Foundation.
| John Olafson sent me the following on De Havilland DHC-3 Otter N342AK:
"Otter N342AK, of Wings Airways in Juneau, is the latest one to come to Vernon,BC to be turbinized. It came here last week and I am really looking forward to seeing it as it emerges from the Kal Air Repair hangar, several months down the road.
One may recognize it as ex/ C-GPPL, formerly of Hawk Air in Ontario and I read in Karl Hayes' excellent CD history that it was the first Otter delivered to the RCAF by deHavilland in 1953!
Note the James Bond style logo on the fuselage..."
Photos © John Olafson, taken 31Jul07.
The following is an abbreviated quotation of Karl E.Hayes' work on this DHC-3 Otter:
Dean Steer sent me these photos, made in 1956 by his father, Keith Steer.
Dean wrote: "My father was an Aircraft Maintenance Engineer for Pacific Western Airlines; he was at the scene and took these photos of CF-TFZ on the ice."
The Bristol 170 Freighter CF-TFZ was at the end of the landing run at Beaverlodge Lake when the right-hand undercarriage broke through the ice of the lake. The aircraft fell onto the left wing when the left undercarriage leg broke off. (It does not seem to me the rh-gear which went through the ice..?)
Details as on Aviation Safety Network (ASN). The aircraft was described as "written off".
The wreckage survives to this day, see Abandoned Plane Wrecks in the North
Photos © |
Dean Steer Collection
The website CNAPG with Bristol Freighter Individual Histories, offered the following historical data on this Bristol Freighter:|
Construction number: 13139
Tom O'Malley sent me a recollection of the "what if.." category:
"The item an the catastrophic history of some of the Bristols sent a shiver up my spine...
In 1971 we were flying in a Bristol Freighter to an abandoned WWII emergency landing field, approx. 600 miles north of Yellowknife (Pelly Lake) to do an EM survey (in a single engine Otter) for Giant Yellowknife Goldmines.
On board we had the entire crew, minus the Otter pilot and navigator, all supplies and a dozen or more drums of AVIATION FUEL...
What a crash that would have been!! I doubt if there would have been any trace left of the plane or us.
Ignorance can be bliss..!"
Tom O'Malley (Ottawa)
John Olafson sent me a photo of a vintage plane, fit to transport VIP's (or just feel like one!):
"Visiting Vernon (BC) 09Jul07, this is a Grumman Widgeon G44-A built in 1945, and it came from Reno.
According to the lady who arrived with it, they have been touring a bunch of lakes here in BC. It sure is pretty inside and reminds me of a cabin cruiser in a way. Lovely decoration on the cupboard door. All the control surfaces are fabric covered. It has been modified with the big Lycoming engines and 3 bladed props. Must be a nice performer with that power."
A few notes to add to this: N111W was registered on 23Jun93 (!) to Steven T.Hamilton of Reno NV and has serial no. 1420, asper FAA's N-inquiry website; but Joe Baugher provides different info: Grumman J4F-2 Widgeon
BuNo.37731 c/n 1361 to civil registry as N75222, N111W...
Grumman G-44 Widgeon on Wikipedia
Nigel Aylmer sent me these photos in July 2007; he wrote:
"Douglas planes at Douglas,GA...
Couple of pictures, taken 25Jul07 at KDQH, speak for themselves." This is Douglas C-54G-10-DO tailnumber N708Z (36067/461) and is owned by Brooks Fuel of Fairbanks,AK. It stranded here with engine problems and though I had learned that an engine was shipped during Dec06 it clearly has not yet been installed.
More can be read here.
What's in a name... This DC-3 is registered N99FS to Brooks Aviation of Douglas,GA. No relation to Brooks Fuel of Fairbanks, afaik...
N99FS has c/n 12425 and was registered to Brooks on 31Mar89, however FAA's website "N-inquiry' shows the remark 'Undeliverable Triennial', meaning a Triennial Aircraft Registration Report was returned by the Post Office as undeliverable... I suspect this means the company is out of business?
N99FS is ex/ 42-92606 and KG395; the RAF handed it over to the Canadians in 1946; when struck of charge it was supposedly reregistered C-GZCR but this was not taken up.
N99FS on Airliners.net
| John Olafson sent me these photos, taken at Vernon,BC on 19Jul07.
As I have an interest in the use of aircraft for fighting fires and recently also became interested in the DHC-6 Twin Otter, I am happy to share these photos on these pages.
C-GIGK (c/n 492) is owned by North Cariboo Air from Fort St. John, BC. This DHC-6-300 Twin Otter spends the summers on contract to the Forest Service, carrying smoke jumpers to forest fires.
John also suggested this link: Parattack on http://bcwildfire.ca
|Dale Schall shared these photos in July 2007 on the Yahoo Airtankers forum; he wrote:
Here are the S2 Tracker and T21 Photos on the Easy Street Fire.
|This fire burned in Wenatchee,WA. |
Some local residents had a big scare when a wildfire broke, threatening their homes, because some people had been playing with fireworks...
The fire started on Easy Street and quickly spread toward the Eagle Rock subdivision, threatening many homes. Some 250 homes were evacuated, but many others enjoyed the action of the airtanker planes.
No homes were lost due to the timely action by the firefighters.
In correspondence about a C-46 wreck in Manitoba,Canada the fact was noted that there had been two C-GIXZ registered Curtiss Commando's; c/n 22453 ended up abandoned in Manitoba and c/n 22495 had crashed in Kenya.
Brian Maddison replied with a photo of the 'Manitoba' C-GIXZ photographed in Vancouver (1978).
Both can be seen on http://members.shaw.ca/navion/cgixz.htm
John Olafson went to Red Deer,ALB on 21Jun07 and witnessed a growing number of Lockheed L.188 Electra's there...
|"Tanker 83 C-GYVI appears to be retired as it has been relieved of its
retardant tank and engines and a few other items".
This Lockheed Electra (c/n 1112) in 1990, N360WS for Air Bridge on Airliners.net.
|"I am sending a photo of L188C C-FLJO c/n 1103 taken inside the Air Spray
hangar. As you can see it is nearing completion as an air tanker with all
engines in place and the retardant tank added. I don't know if it will be
seeing service this year though."
Lockheed L.188 Electra on Wikipedia
I saw it converted to Tanker 82 during my visit 24Sep07.
|"I also photographed the tail of L188A OE-ILB c/n 1039 at Buffalo Airways hangar. They are preparing it to go to work as Buffalo Airways first Electra freighter. [It was registered as C-FBAQ in 2007]
While I was there I noticed a contractor was getting ready to build an extension to that hangar which will allow an aircraft to be completely enclosed. I'm sure the maintenance crews will greatly appreciate that when it plunges to minus fourty next winter!"
|"I spotted this very sad looking CV240 C-GTFC (ex/ N152PA) at Red Deer and it has been registered to Buffalo Airways for a couple of years. Perhaps it has been brought to Red Deer to be made operational in the freighting role. It goes without saying that a new paint job is required. I found it quite interesting that one of the R2800 engines was made by Nash Corporation, maker of things like automobiles, Kelvinator refrigerators, stoves etc."|
"Also a photo of a couple of massive L188 engines inside the Air Spray
The Lockheed L.188 was the first turboprop airliner built in the USA. It first flew in 1957 and when first delivered had performance only slightly inferior to that of a full jet aircraft, at a lower operating cost. But most operators considered jets as the future and went to Douglas (DC-8) and Boeing (707).
Kyle Cameron sent me some photos in June 2007 of the Hs.748 at work...
Dirk Septer challenged the statement C-FAGI was leased from Mount Cook Airlines:
ATDB.0rg supports Dirk's statement; the career of C-FAGI is described as Regionair - Calm Air Int'l / Air Canada Regional (leased & returned) - Quebecair - Air Manitoba - Wassaya Airways (!) - Air North Charter (current Oct.2008).
Richard Church, who is an expert on the HS.748, wrote:
Brian McDonough wrote me in June and sent me these fine photos; Brian wrote:
Lockheed Constellation on Wikipedia
More photos of this impressive Queen of the Sky, see Brian's page on this website
Unfortunately this unique aeroplane enjoyed only a short flying career with Brooks Fuel in Alaska: it crashed at the Nixon Fork Mine, near McGrath, in Alaska on 30may07 (yes, Keith saw it leave on its final flight...!)
Read more on my website about N898AT.
Stefan Wunderlin sent me this fine photograph of Drag-em-oot zooming past; N473DC is seen doing a low pass at Friedrichshafen (D) on 14Jul07. |
More on my website on this vintage transport can be found here and here.
John Olafson wrote me in June 2007 and he sent photos along, depicting an interesting event:
See also my page on Wardair, a Chronology
"The group photo shows left to right: Dave Crerar of Vernon who is Max's pilot, Max Ward, Bobby Bishop - Pres Texas Turbines and Test Pilot, yours truly. (shameful of me but I had to have my photo taken with Max Ward).
John Olafson encountered C-FMAU again in May 2008, witnessing its transfer from wheel to floats.
Karl E.Hayes wrote a standard reference work on the DHC-3, of which I quote:
And as we can see C-FMAU recently received a new lease on live and in what better hands than those of Max Ward, for whom the DHC-3 Otter initially was a prime tool to venture commercially into the Arctic North from his base Yellowknife,NWT.
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